一、Spring Data JPA的概述

1.1 Spring Data JPA概述

  • Spring Data JPA 是 Spring 基于 ORM 框架、JPA 规范的基础上封装的一套JPA应用框架,可使开发者用极简的代码即可实现对数据库的访问和操作。它提供了包括增删改查等在内的常用功能,且易于扩展!学习并使用 Spring Data JPA 可以极大提高开发效率!

  • Spring Data JPA 让我们解脱了DAO层的操作,基本上所有CRUD都可以依赖于它来实现,在实际的工作工程中,推荐使用Spring Data JPA + ORM(如:hibernate)完成操作,这样在切换不同的ORM框架时提供了极大的方便,同时也使数据库层操作更加简单,方便解耦

1.2 Spring Data JPA 与 JPA和hibernate之间的关系

  • JPA是一套规范,内部是有接口和抽象类组成的。hibernate是一套成熟的ORM框架,而且Hibernate实现了JPA规范,所以也可以称hibernate为JPA的一种实现方式,我们使用JPA的API编程,意味着站在更高的角度上看待问题(面向接口编程)

  • Spring Data JPA是Spring提供的一套对JPA操作更加高级的封装,是在JPA规范下的专门用来进行数据持久化的解决方案。

二、Spring Data JPA的快速入门

2.1 搭建开发环境

使用Spring Data JPA,需要整合Spring与Spring Data JPA,并且需要提供JPA的服务提供者hibernate,所以需要导入spring相关坐标,hibernate坐标,数据库驱动坐标等

 <properties>
        <spring.version>4.2.4.RELEASE</spring.version>
        <hibernate.version>5.0.7.Final</hibernate.version>
        <slf4j.version>1.6.6</slf4j.version>
        <log4j.version>1.2.12</log4j.version>
        <c3p0.version>0.9.1.2</c3p0.version>
        <mysql.version>5.1.6</mysql.version>
    </properties>

    <dependencies>
        <!-- junit单元测试 -->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>junit</groupId>
            <artifactId>junit</artifactId>
            <version>4.9</version>
            <scope>test</scope>
        </dependency>
        
        <!-- spring beg -->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.aspectj</groupId>
            <artifactId>aspectjweaver</artifactId>
            <version>1.6.8</version>
        </dependency>

        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-aop</artifactId>
            <version>${spring.version}</version>
        </dependency>

        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-context</artifactId>
            <version>${spring.version}</version>
        </dependency>

        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-context-support</artifactId>
            <version>${spring.version}</version>
        </dependency>

        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-orm</artifactId>
            <version>${spring.version}</version>
        </dependency>

        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-beans</artifactId>
            <version>${spring.version}</version>
        </dependency>

        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-core</artifactId>
            <version>${spring.version}</version>
        </dependency>
        
        <!-- spring end -->

        <!-- hibernate beg -->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.hibernate</groupId>
            <artifactId>hibernate-core</artifactId>
            <version>${hibernate.version}</version>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.hibernate</groupId>
            <artifactId>hibernate-entitymanager</artifactId>
            <version>${hibernate.version}</version>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.hibernate</groupId>
            <artifactId>hibernate-validator</artifactId>
            <version>5.2.1.Final</version>
        </dependency>
        <!-- hibernate end -->

        <!-- c3p0 beg -->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>c3p0</groupId>
            <artifactId>c3p0</artifactId>
            <version>${c3p0.version}</version>
        </dependency>
        <!-- c3p0 end -->

        <!-- log end -->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>log4j</groupId>
            <artifactId>log4j</artifactId>
            <version>${log4j.version}</version>
        </dependency>

        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.slf4j</groupId>
            <artifactId>slf4j-api</artifactId>
            <version>${slf4j.version}</version>
        </dependency>

        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.slf4j</groupId>
            <artifactId>slf4j-log4j12</artifactId>
            <version>${slf4j.version}</version>
        </dependency>
        <!-- log end -->

        
        <dependency>
            <groupId>mysql</groupId>
            <artifactId>mysql-connector-java</artifactId>
            <version>${mysql.version}</version>
        </dependency>

        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.data</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-data-jpa</artifactId>
            <version>1.9.0.RELEASE</version>
        </dependency>

        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-test</artifactId>
            <version>4.2.4.RELEASE</version>
        </dependency>
        
        <!-- el beg 使用spring data jpa 必须引入 -->
        <dependency>  
            <groupId>javax.el</groupId>  
            <artifactId>javax.el-api</artifactId>  
            <version>2.2.4</version>  
        </dependency>  
          
        <dependency>  
            <groupId>org.glassfish.web</groupId>  
            <artifactId>javax.el</artifactId>  
            <version>2.2.4</version>  
        </dependency> 
        <!-- el end -->
    </dependencies>

2.2 整合Spring Data JPA与Spring

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
	xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xmlns:aop="http://www.springframework.org/schema/aop"
	xmlns:context="http://www.springframework.org/schema/context"
	xmlns:jdbc="http://www.springframework.org/schema/jdbc" xmlns:tx="http://www.springframework.org/schema/tx"
	xmlns:jpa="http://www.springframework.org/schema/data/jpa" xmlns:task="http://www.springframework.org/schema/task"
	xsi:schemaLocation="
		http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans.xsd
		http://www.springframework.org/schema/aop http://www.springframework.org/schema/aop/spring-aop.xsd
		http://www.springframework.org/schema/context http://www.springframework.org/schema/context/spring-context.xsd
		http://www.springframework.org/schema/jdbc http://www.springframework.org/schema/jdbc/spring-jdbc.xsd
		http://www.springframework.org/schema/tx http://www.springframework.org/schema/tx/spring-tx.xsd
		http://www.springframework.org/schema/data/jpa 
		http://www.springframework.org/schema/data/jpa/spring-jpa.xsd">
	
	<!-- 1.dataSource 配置数据库连接池-->
	<bean id="dataSource" class="com.mchange.v2.c3p0.ComboPooledDataSource">
		<property name="driverClass" value="com.mysql.jdbc.Driver" />
		<property name="jdbcUrl" value="jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/jpa" />
		<property name="user" value="root" />
		<property name="password" value="root" />
	</bean>
	
	<!-- 2.配置entityManagerFactory -->
	<bean id="entityManagerFactory" class="org.springframework.orm.jpa.LocalContainerEntityManagerFactoryBean">
		<property name="dataSource" ref="dataSource" />
		<property name="packagesToScan" value="cn.itcast.entity" />
		<property name="persistenceProvider">
			<bean class="org.hibernate.jpa.HibernatePersistenceProvider" />
		</property>
		<!--JPA的供应商适配器-->
		<property name="jpaVendorAdapter">
			<bean class="org.springframework.orm.jpa.vendor.HibernateJpaVendorAdapter">
				<property name="generateDdl" value="false" />
				<property name="database" value="MYSQL" />
				<property name="databasePlatform" value="org.hibernate.dialect.MySQLDialect" />
				<property name="showSql" value="true" />
			</bean>
		</property>
		<property name="jpaDialect">
			<bean class="org.springframework.orm.jpa.vendor.HibernateJpaDialect" />
		</property>
	</bean>
    
	
	<!-- 3.事务管理器-->
	<!-- JPA事务管理器  -->
	<bean id="transactionManager" class="org.springframework.orm.jpa.JpaTransactionManager">
		<property name="entityManagerFactory" ref="entityManagerFactory" />
	</bean>
	
	<!-- 整合spring data jpa-->
	<jpa:repositories base-package="cn.itcast.dao"
		transaction-manager-ref="transactionManager"
		entity-manager-factory-ref="entityManagerFactory"></jpa:repositories>
		
	<!-- 4.txAdvice-->
	<tx:advice id="txAdvice" transaction-manager="transactionManager">
		<tx:attributes>
			<tx:method name="save*" propagation="REQUIRED"/>
			<tx:method name="insert*" propagation="REQUIRED"/>
			<tx:method name="update*" propagation="REQUIRED"/>
			<tx:method name="delete*" propagation="REQUIRED"/>
			<tx:method name="get*" read-only="true"/>
			<tx:method name="find*" read-only="true"/>
			<tx:method name="*" propagation="REQUIRED"/>
		</tx:attributes>
	</tx:advice>
	
	<!-- 5.aop-->
	<aop:config>
		<aop:pointcut id="pointcut" expression="execution(* cn.itcast.service.*.*(..))" />
		<aop:advisor advice-ref="txAdvice" pointcut-ref="pointcut" />
	</aop:config>
	
	<context:component-scan base-package="cn.itcast"></context:component-scan>
		
	<!--组装其它 配置文件-->
	
</beans>

2.3 使用JPA注解配置映射关系

在SpringData Jpa学习笔记01中已经配置了好了映射关系

2.4 编写符合Spring Data JPA规范的Dao层接口

Spring Data JPA是spring提供的一款对于数据访问层(Dao层)的框架,使用Spring Data JPA,只需要按照框架的规范提供dao接口,不需要实现类就可以完成数据库的增删改查、分页查询等方法的定义,极大的简化了我们的开发过程。
步骤:

  1. 创建一个Dao层接口,并实现JpaRepository和JpaSpecificationExecutor
  2. 提供相应的泛型
/**
 * JpaRepository<实体类类型,主键类型>:用来完成基本CRUD操作
 * JpaSpecificationExecutor<实体类类型>:用于复杂查询(分页等查询操作)
 */
public interface CustomerDao extends JpaRepository<Customer, Long>, JpaSpecificationExecutor<Customer> {
}

2.5 完成CRUD操作

@RunWith(SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.class)
@ContextConfiguration(locations="classpath:applicationContext.xml")
public class CustomerDaoTest {

    @Autowired
    private CustomerDao customerDao;
    
    /**
     * 保存客户:调用save(obj)方法
     */
    @Test
    public void testSave() {
        Customer c = new Customer();
        c.setCustName("肇庆学院");
        customerDao.save(c);
    }
    
    /**
     * 修改客户:调用save(obj)方法
     *      对于save方法的解释:如果执行此方法是对象中存在id属性,即为更新操作会先根据id查询,再更新    
     *                      如果执行此方法中对象中不存在id属性,即为保存操作
     *          
     */
    @Test
    public void testUpdate() {
        //根据id查询id为1的客户
        Customer customer = customerDao.findOne(1l);
        //修改客户名称
        customer.setCustName("哈哈哈");
        //更新
        customerDao.save(customer);
    }
    
    /**
     * 根据id删除:调用delete(id)方法
     */
    @Test
    public void testDelete() {
        customerDao.delete(1l);
    }
    
    /**
     * 根据id查询:调用findOne(id)方法
     */
    @Test
    public void testFindById() {
        Customer customer = customerDao.findOne(2L);
        System.out.println(customer);
    }
}

三、Spring Data JPA的内部原理剖析

3.1 Spring Data JPA的实现过程

  • 代理子类的实现过程

    断点执行到方法上时,可以发现注入的customerDao对象,本质上是通过JdkDynamicAopProxy生成的一个代理对象
  • 代理对象中方法调用的分析
    当程序执行的时候,会通过JdkDynamicAopProxyinvoke方法,对customerDao对象生成动态代理对象。根据对Spring Data JPA介绍而知,要想进行findOne查询方法,最终还是会出现JPA规范的API完成操作,那么这些底层代码存在于何处呢?答案很简单,都隐藏在通过JdkDynamicAopProxy生成的动态代理对象当中,而这个动态代理对象就是SimpleJpaRepository

    通过SimpleJpaRepository的源码分析,定位到了findOne方法,在此方法中,返回em.find()的返回结果,那么em又是什么呢?

    带着问题继续查找em对象,我们发现em就是EntityManager对象,而他是JPA原生的实现方式,所以我们得到结论Spring Data JPA只是对标准JPA操作进行了进一步封装,简化了Dao层代码的开发

3.2 Spring Data JPA完整的调用过程分析

四、Spring Data JPA的查询方式

4.1 使用Spring Data JPA中接口定义的方法进行查询

  • 继承JpaRepository后的方法列表
  • 继承JpaSpecificationExecutor的方法列表

4.2 使用SQL语句查询

/**
* nativeQuery : 使用本地sql的方式查询
*/
@Query(value="select * from cst_customer",nativeQuery=true)
public void findAll();

4.3 方法命名规则查询

按照Spring Data JPA 定义的规则,查询方法以findBy开头,涉及条件查询时,条件的属性用条件关键字连接,要注意的是:条件属性首字母需大写。框架在进行方法名解析时,会先把方法名多余的前缀截取掉,然后对剩下部分进行解析。

//方法命名方式查询(根据客户名称查询客户)
public Customer findByCustName(String custName);
关键字例⼦SQL snippet
AndfindByLastnameAndFirstname… where x.lastname = ?1 and x.firstname = ?2
OrfindByLastnameOrFirstname… where x.lastname = ?1 or x.firstname = ?2
IsfindByFirstname , findByFirstnameIs… where x.firstname = ?1
BetweenfindByStartDateBetween… where x.startDate between ?1 and ?2
LessThanfindByAgeLessThan… where x.age < ?1
LessThanEqualfindByAgeLessThanEqual… where x.age <= ?1
GreaterThanfindByAgeGreaterThan… where x.age > ?1
GreaterThanEqualfindByAgeGreaterThanEqual… where x.age >= ?1
AfterfindByStartDateAfter… where x.startDate > ?1
BeforefindByStartDateBefore… where x.startDate < ?1
IsNullfindByAgeIsNull… where x.age is null
IsNotNull,NotNullfindByAge(Is)NotNull… where x.age not null
LikefindByFirstnameLike… where x.firstname like ?1
NotLikefindByFirstnameNotLike… where x.firstname not like ?1
StartingWithfindByFirstnameStartingWith… where x.firstname like ?1 (parameter bound with appended % )
EndingWithfindByFirstnameEndingWith… where x.firstname like ?1 (parameter bound with prepended % )
ContainingfindByFirstnameContaining… where x.firstname like ?1 (parameter bound wrapped in % )
OrderByfindByAgeOrderByLastnameDesc… where x.age = ?1 order by x.lastname desc
NotfindByLastnameNot… where x.lastname <> ?1
InfindByAgeIn(Collection ages)… where x.age in ?1
NotInfindByAgeNotIn(Collection ages)… where x.age not in ?1
TruefindByActiveTrue()… where x.active = true
FalsefindByActiveFalse()… where x.active = false
IgnoreCasefindByFirstnameIgnoreCase… where UPPER(x.firstame) = UPPER(?1)

Q.E.D.


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